The goal of this study was to investigate both transcriptomic and metabolomic changes in response to xenoestrogen exposure. Male stickleback fish were used as a model organism for this study as they are environmentally relevant and the stickleback genome draft sequence was available. Key to this study was the ability to carry out both omics techniques upon the same liver tissue homogenate  .
 I. Katsiadaki et al., Aquatic Toxicologydoi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.07.005 H. Wu et al., Anal. Biochem. 37 (2008) 204–212
1H-NMR metabolomics gave highly reproducible data and multivariate analyses suggested a concentration response relationship. Transcriptomic analysis showed induction of hepatic vitellogenins and choriogenins, together with a range of other xenoestrogen-responsive genes. Vitellogenin C was identified as a major responsive isoform, in contrast to other fish species.