The goal of this study was to assess the sensitivity of three pedigrees (White, Liangdao Red and Zebra) of Manila clam to the acute mercury exposure which is used as the bioindicator for the monitoring of contaminants in marine environments. The gill of clam was one of target organs for the accumulation of contaminant, therefore the gills tissues were sampled and processed from the acute mercury exposed clams (White, Liangdao Red and Zebra) for the metabolite extraction  .
 Xiaoli Liu, et al., Ecotoxicology DOI10.1007/s10646-010-0569-x H. Wu et al., Anal. Biochem. 37 (2008) 204–212
1H NMR-based metabolomics showed that the White clam (A) was the most sensitive pedigree to the exposure of mercury. However, further studies on the other tissues (digestive gland, muscle, etc.) are necessary to assess their sensitivity of various pedigrees of clam to various types of environmental contaminants.
Figure 1: representative one-dimensional 1H NMR spectrum of gill tissue extracts from Manila clam.